All terms are defined in the context of cancer

Advanced-stage: a cancer that has spread past the site of origin to other organs.

Bone marrow: the spongy tissue found in larger bones such as hip and thighs and that produces blood cells.

Cell-cycle: the process during which cells grow, duplicate their DNA and divide.

Cell: the basic building block of all organisms.

Chemotherapy: treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop their growth.

Clinical Trial: research investigation that tests new treatments on patients.

Database: a collection of computer files.

DNA: the biological material that carries genetic information an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. 

Drug: a medicine used for treatment.

FDA (Food and Drug Administration): US agency that regulates pharmaceutical drugs.

Gene: a portion of DNA that carries instructions to make proteins.

High-risk: a cancer that is likely to come back.

Immune system: the body’s defence against infection.

in vitro: a study conducted outside of a living organism (e.g. test tube, culture dish).

in vivo: a study conducted in animals. 

Metastasis: a cancer that has spread to another part of the body.
 

 

Phase I Clinical Trial: research to test the safety of a new treatment on a small group of people.

Phase II Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of a new treatment on a larger group of people.

Phase III Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of a new treatment on a larger group of people by comparing it to standard treatment.

Phase IV Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of an approved new treatment on the general population over longer periods of time.

Pre-clinical study: a study conducted in a laboratory to test a treatment before it can progress to clinical trials.

Prevention: act/measures to avoid cancer.

Prognosis: prediction of how the patient will be affected by the cancer.

Radiotherapy: treatment that uses radiation to kill or damage cancer cells.

Relapse: return of the cancer.

Remission: decrease in size or disappearance of the cancer.

Side effect: an adverse effect of a medicine.

Solid tumour: abnormal growth of tissue cells other than blood, bone marrow or lymphatic cells.

Stage: it describes where a cancer is located and if it has spread to other organs or parts of the body.

Standard-of-care: treatment that experts believe as the most appropriate.

Synergy: when one drug increases the efficacy of another drug when working together.

Therapy: treatment aimed to cure an illness.
 

 

 

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