All terms are defined in the context of cancer

Advanced-stage: a cancer that has spread past the site of origin to other organs.

Adolescents and Young Adults: adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer face unique challenges that affect their treatment and survival, but a deficiency of research and funding presents barriers to proper treatment and supportive care. The cancers that affect AYAs are often rare and difficult, and that treatment is often further complicated by the development of early-onset adult cancers by paediatric patients and of late-onset paediatric cancers by young adults.

Bone marrow: the spongy tissue found in larger bones such as hip and thighs and that produces blood cells.

Cell-cycle: the process during which cells grow, duplicate their DNA and divide.

Cell: the basic building block of all organisms.

Chemotherapy: treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop their growth.

Clinical Trial: research investigation that tests new treatments on patients.

Database: a collection of computer files.

DNA: the biological material that carries genetic information an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. 

Drug: a medicine used for treatment.

FDA (Food and Drug Administration): US agency that regulates pharmaceutical drugs.

Gene: a portion of DNA that carries instructions to make proteins.

High-risk: a cancer that is likely to come back.

Immune system: the body’s defence against infection.

in vitro: a study conducted outside of a living organism (e.g. test tube, culture dish).

in vivo: a study conducted in animals. 

Late Effects: the treatment of childhood cancer may cause health problems for survivors months or years after successful treatment has ended. Cancer treatments may harm the body's organs, tissues, bones and cause health issues later in life. These are known as late effects.

Metastasis: a cancer that has spread to another part of the body.


Phase I Clinical Trial: research to test the safety of a new treatment on a small group of people.

Phase II Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of a new treatment on a larger group of people.

Phase III Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of a new treatment on a larger group of people by comparing it to standard treatment.

Phase IV Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of an approved new treatment on the general population over longer periods of time.

Pre-clinical study: a study conducted in a laboratory to test a treatment before it can progress to clinical trials.

Prevention: act/measures to avoid cancer.

Prognosis: prediction of how the patient will be affected by the cancer.

Radiotherapy: treatment that uses radiation to kill or damage cancer cells.

Relapse: return of the cancer.

Remission: decrease in size or disappearance of the cancer.

Side effect: an adverse effect of a medicine.

Solid tumour: abnormal growth of tissue cells other than blood, bone marrow or lymphatic cells.

Stage: it describes where a cancer is located and if it has spread to other organs or parts of the body.

Standard-of-care: treatment that experts believe as the most appropriate.

Synergy: when one drug increases the efficacy of another drug when working together.

Therapy: treatment aimed to cure an illness.



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