All terms are defined in the context of cancer

Advanced-stage: a cancer that has spread past the site of origin to other organs

Bone marrow: the spongy tissue found in larger bones such as hip and thighs and that produces blood cells

Cell-cycle: the process during which cells grow, duplicate their DNA and divide

Cell: the basic building block of all organisms

Chemotherapy: treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells or stop their growth

Clinical Trial: research investigation that tests new treatments on patients

Database: a collection of computer files

DNA: the biological material that carries genetic information an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce 

Drug: a medicine used for treatment

FDA (Food and Drug Administration): U.S. agency that regulates pharmaceutical drugs

Gene: a portion of DNA that carries instructions to make proteins

High-risk: a cancer that is likely to come back

Immune system: the body’s defence against infection

in vitro: a study conducted outside of a living organism (e.g. test tube, culture dish)

in vivo: a study conducted in animals 

Metastasis: a cancer that has spread to another part of the body


Phase I Clinical Trial: research to test the safety of a new treatment on a small group of people

Phase II Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of a new treatment on a larger group of people

Phase III Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of a new treatment on a larger group of people by comparing it to standard treatment

Phase IV Clinical Trial: research to test the efficacy of an approved new treatment on the general population over longer periods of time

Pre-clinical study: a study conducted in a laboratory to test a treatment before it can progress to clinical trials

Prevention: act/measures to avoid cancer

Prognosis: prediction of how the patient will be affected by the cancer

Radiotherapy: treatment that uses radiation to kill or damage cancer cells

Relapse: return of the cancer

Remission: decrease in size or disappearance of the cancer

Side effect: an adverse effect of a medicine

Solid tumour: abnormal growth of tissue cells other than blood, bone marrow or lymphatic cells

Stage: it describes where a cancer is located and if it has spread to other organs or parts of the body

Standard-of-care: treatment that experts believe as the most appropriate

Synergy: when one drug increases the efficacy of another drug when working together

Therapy:treatment aimed to cure an illness



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